Surfactants In XIAMETER® Brand Silicone Emulsions
XIAMETER® brand silicone emulsions may be formulated with nonionic, anionic, or cationic surfactants. The type of emulsifier used defines the emulsion’s ionic character.
Nonionic – Emulsion particles show no net charge and can be used in a variety of systems (nonionic, anionic, cationic, or polymer) without forming a complex.
Anionic – Emulsion particles have a net negative charge, typical of formulations based on the saponification of a fatty acid, such as oleic acid, and an alkali.
Cationic – Emulsion particles have a net positive charger similar to alkyl quaternary compounds, giving good wetting and substantivity properties as well as synergy with silicones.
Emulsion choice is based on the compatibility of the surfactant with the application formula and the mechanism of silicone action or deposition.
How Surfactants Work
The surfactant migrates between the two phases (silicone and water) and remains at the interface, where it stabilizes the repulsion forces of the two phases.
A silicone must generally deposit itself on a substrate to provide its benefits. This is triggered either by the polymer functionality and/or by the emulsion surfactant system used in synergy with the application formulation.